Saturday, January 07, 2017

The Prophet's Last Sermon and Madinah Charter

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The Prophet's Last Sermon and Madinah Charter



 
This document contains the Shi`ite and Sunnite rendition of the Last Sermon in addition to a couple of shorter reports that seem to be recounting the same event. Included herein are several translations of the same Arabic document. Finally, a third relevant document known as the Madinah Charter is also attached.

خطبة رسول الله في حجة الوداع

إِنِّي لا أَدْرِي لَعَلِّيْ لا أَلقَاكُم بَعدَ عَامِي هَذا بِهَذا المَوقِفِ أبَداً .
يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاس ، إِنِّي تَركتُ فيكُم الثَّـقَلين ، كِتابَ اللهِ وَعِترَتِي أهلَ بَيتي .
يا ربيعة ، قُل : يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاس ، إنَّ رَسولَ اللهِ يَقول لَكُم : لَعَلَّكُم لا تَلقونَنِي عَلى مِثلِ حَالي هَذه ، وَعَليكم هَذا ، هَل تَدرُونَ أَيَّ بَلَدٍ هَذا ؟ وهَل تَدرُونَ أيَّ شَهرٍ هَذا ؟ وهَل تَدرُونَ أَيَّ يَومٍ هَذا ؟  .
فقال ربيعة مثل ما أمره النبي  صلى الله عليه وآله .
فقال الناس : نعم هذا البلد الحرام ، والشهر الحرام ، واليوم الحرام .
وقال صلى الله عليه وآله  :
إِنَّ اللهَ حَرَّمَ عَليكُم دِمَاءَكُم وَأَموَالَكُم كَحُرمَةِ بَلَدِكُم هَذا ، وَكَحُرمَةِ شَهرِكُم هذا ، وَكَحُرمَةِ يَومِكُم هَذا .
ثم قال ( صلى الله عليه وآله : ( أَلاَ هَلْ بَلَّغْتُ ؟  .
قالوا : نعم .
فقال ( صلى الله عليه وآله  : ( اللَّهُمَّ اشْهَدْ  .
ثم قال  صلى الله عليه وآله :
وَاتَّقُوا اللهَ وَلا تَبْخَسُوا النَّاسَ أَشيَاءَهُم ، وَلا تَعثَوا في الأَرضِ مُفسِدِين ، فَمَنْ كَانَت عِندَهُ أمانَةً فَلْيُؤَدِّهَا .
ثم قال صلى الله عليه وآله :
النَّاسُ في الإِسْلاَمِ سَواءٌ ، النَّاسُ طَف الصَّاعِ لآدمَ وَحَوَّاءَ ، لا فَضْلَ لِعَرَبِيٍّ على عَجمِي ، ولا عَجمِي عَلى عَرَبِي إِلاَّ بِتَقوَى اللهِ  .
ثم قال ( صلى الله عليه وآله : ( أَلاَ هَلْ بَلَّغْتُ ؟
فقالوا : نعم .
فقال ( صلى الله عليه وآله  : ( اللَّهُمَّ اشْهَدْ  .
ثم قال ( صلى الله عليه وآله : ( لاَ تَأتُونِي بِأَنْسَابِكُم ، وَأْتونِي بِأَعمَالِكُم .
ثم قال ( صلى الله عليه وآله  : ( أَلاَ هَلْ بَلَّغْتُ ؟
فقالوا : نعم .
فقال ( صلى الله عليه وآله : ( اللَّهُمَّ اشْهَدْ  .
ثم قال صلى الله عليه وآله  :
كُلُّ دَمٍ كَانَ في الجاهِليَّة مَوضوعٌ تَحتَ قَدَمي ، وَأوَّلُ دَمٍ أَضَعُهُ دَمَ آدمَ بنَ ربيعة بنَ الحَارِثَ بنَ عبد المُطَّلب  .
ثم قال ( صلى الله عليه وآله : ( أَلاَ هَلْ بَلَّغْتُ ؟
فقالوا : نعم .
فقال ( صلى الله عليه وآله  : ( اللَّهُمَّ اشْهَدْ  .
ثم قال  صلى الله عليه وآله  :
وَكُلُّ رِبا كانَ في الجاهلِيَّة مَوضوعٌ تَحتَ قَدمي ، وَأوَّلُ رِبا أَضعُهُ رِبا العبَّاس بنَ عَبد المُطَّلِب  .
ثم قال ( صلى الله عليه وآله : ( أَلاَ هَلْ بَلَّغْتُ ؟ 
فقالوا : نعم .
فقال ( صلى الله عليه وآله : ( اللَّهُمَّ اشْهَدْ.
ثم قال صلى الله عليه وآله  :
أَيُّهَا النَّاس ، إِنَّمَا النَّسيءُ زِيادةٌ في الكُفرِ ، يضلُّ به الذينَ كَفَروا ، يُحِلُّونَهُ عاماً ، وَيُحَرِّمُونَهُ عاماً ، لِيوَاطِئُوا عِدَّة مَا حَرَّمَ اللهُ  .
 ثم قال صلى الله عليه وآله:
أُوصِيكُم بالنِّساءِ خَيراً ، فَإِنَّما هُنَّ عَوَارٍ عِندَكُم ، لا يَملُكْنَ لأَنفُسِهِنَّ شَيئاً ، وإنَّما أَخَذْتُمُوهُنَّ بِأمَانَةِ الله، وَاستَحلَلْتُم فُروجَهُنَّ بِكتَابِ الله ، وَلَكُم عَلَيهنَّ حَقٌّ ، وَلَهُنَّ عَليكُم حَقٌّ ، كسْوَتَهُنَّ ، وَرِزقَهُنَّ بالمعروف ، وَلَكُم عَلَيهنَّ أَنْ لا يُوطِئْنَ فِراشَكُم أَحَداً ، ولا يأذَنُ في بيوتِكُم إِلاَّ بِعلمِكُم وإِذنِكُم ، فَإِنْ فَعَلْنَ شيئاً من ذلك فَاهْجرُوهُنَّ في المَضَاجِع ، واضرِبُوهُنَّ ضَرباً غَير مُبرِحٍ  .
ثم قال ( صلى الله عليه وآله : ( أَلاَ هَلْ بَلَّغْتُ ؟ 
فقالوا : نعم .
فقال ( صلى الله عليه وآله  : ( اللَّهُمَّ اشْهَدْ  .
ثم قال صلى الله عليه وآله :
فَأوصِيكُم بِمَن مَلَكتْ أَيْمَانِكُم ، فَأطعِمُوهُمْ مِمَّا تَأكُلُون ، وَأَلبِسُوهُم مِمَّا تَلبِسُون ، وإِنْ أَذْنَبوا فَكَالُوا عُقوبَاتِهِم إِلى شِرَارِكُم  .
ثم قال ( صلى الله عليه وآله  : ( أَلاَ هَلْ بَلَّغْتُ ؟
فقالوا : نعم .
فقال ( صلى الله عليه وآله  : ( اللَّهُمَّ اشْهَدْ  .
ثم قال صلى الله عليه وآله  :
إِنَّ المُسلمَ أخو المُسلم ، لا يَغُشُّهُ ، ولا يَخُونُه ، ولا يَغْتَابُه ، ولا يَحُلُّ لَهُ دَمُهُ ، ولا شَيءٌ من مَالِهِ إِلاَّ بِطِيبِ نَفسِه  .
ثم قال ( صلى الله عليه وآله  : ( أَلاَ هَلْ بَلَّغْتُ ؟
فقالوا : نعم .
فقال ( صلى الله عليه وآله  : ( اللَّهُمَّ اشْهَدْ  .
ثم قال صلى الله عليه وآله:
لاَ تَرجعُوا بَعدي كُفَّاراً مُضَلِّلينَ ، يَملِكُ بَعضَكُم رِقابَ بَعضٍ ، إِنِّي خَلَّفتُ فِيكم مَا أَنْ تَمَسَّكْتُمْ بِه لَنْ تَضِلُّوا كِتَابَ اللهِ وَعِترَتِي أَهْلَ بَيتِي .
ثم قال ( صلى الله عليه وآله  : ( أَلاَ هَلْ بَلَّغْتُ ؟
فقالوا : نعم .
فقال ( صلى الله عليه وآله : ( اللَّهُمَّ اشْهَدْ .
ثم التفت ( صلى الله عليه وآله ) إليهم ، فطالبهم بالالتزام بما أعلنه وأذاعه فيهم قائلاً :
إِنَّكُم مَسْؤُولُون ، فَلْيُبَلِّغ الشَّاهِدُ مِنكُم الغَائِبَ.
 
خطبة الوداع (10 هجرية(

ألقاها الرسول صلى الله عليه وسلم في حجة الوداع يوم عرفة من جبل الرحمة وقد نزل فيه الوحي مبشراً أنه "اليوم أكملت لكم دينكم وأتممت عليكم نعمتي ورضيت لكم الإسلام ديناً"
الحمد لله نحمده ونستعينه ونستغفره ونتوب إليه، ونعوذ بالله من شرور أنفسنا ومن سيئات أعمالنا من يهده الله فلا مضل له ومن يضلل فلا هادي له، وأشهد أن لا إله إلا الله وحده لا شريك له وأشهد أن محمداً عبده ورسوله.
أوصيكم عباد الله بتقوى الله وأحثكم على طاعته وأستفتح بالذي هو خير. أما بعد أيها الناس اسمعوا مني أبين لكم فإني لا أدري لعلى لا ألقاكم بعد عامي هذا في موقفي هذا.
أيها الناس إن دماءكم وأعراضكم حرام عليكم إلى أن تلقوا ربكم كحرمة يومكم هذا في شهركم هذا في بلدكم هذا – ألا هل بلغت اللهم فاشهد، فمن كانت عنده أمانة فليؤدها إلى من ائتمنه عليها.
وإن ربا الجاهلية موضوع ولكن لكم رؤوس أموالكم لا تظلمون ولا تظلمون وقضى الله أنه لا ربا. وإن أول ربا أبدأ به عمي العباس بن عبد المطلب.
وإن دماء الجاهلية موضوعة، وإن أول دم نبدأ به دم عامر بن ربيعة بن الحارث بن عبد المطلب وإن مآثر الجاهلية موضوعة غير السدانة والسقاية والعمد قود وشبه العمد ما قتل بالعصا والحجر وفيه مائة بعير، فمن زاد فهو من أهل الجاهلية – ألا هل بلغت اللهم فاشهد.
أما بعد أيها الناس إن الشيطان قد يئس أن يعبد في أرضكم هذه، ولكنه قد رضي أن يطاع فيما سوى ذلك مما تحرقون من أعمالكم فاحذروه على دينكم، أيها الناس إنما النسئ زيادة في الكفر يضل به الذين كفروا يحلونه عاماً ويحرمونه عاماً ليوطئوا عدة ما حرم الله فيحلوا ما حرم الله ويحرموا ما أحل الله. وإن الزمان قد استدار كهيئته يوم خلق الله السماوات والأرض، وإن عدة الشهور عند الله اثنا عشر شهراً في كتاب الله يوم خلق الله السماوات والأرض، منها أربعة حرم ثلاثة متواليات وواحد فرد: ذو القعدة وذو الحجة والمحرم ورجب مضر الذي بين جمادى وشعبان – ألا هل بلغت اللهم فاشهد.
أما بعد أيها الناس إن لنسائكم عليكم حقاً ولكم عليهن حق. لكم أن لا يواطئن فرشهم غيركم، ولا يدخلن أحداً تكرهونه بيوتكم إلا بإذنكم ولا يأتين بفاحشة، فإن فعلن فإن الله قد أذن لكم أن تعضلوهن وتهجروهن في المضاجع وتضربوهن ضرباً غير مبرح، فإن انتهين وأطعنكم فعليكم رزقهن وكسوتهن بالمعروف، واستوصوا بالنساء خيراً، فإنهن عندكم عوان لا يملكن لأنفسهن شيئاً، وإنكم إنما أخذتموهن بأمانة الله واستحللتم فروجهن بكلمة الله فاتقوا الله في النساء واستوصوا بهن خيراً – ألا هل بلغت....اللهم فاشهد.
أيها الناس إنما المؤمنون إخوة ولا يحل لامرئ مال لأخيه إلا عن طيب نفس منه – ألا هل بلغت اللهم فاشهد.
فلا ترجعن بعدى كافراً يضرب بعضكم رقاب بعض، فإني قد تركت فيكم ما إن أخذتم به لن تضلوا بعده: كتاب الله وسنة نبيه، ألا هل بلغت ... اللهم فاشهد.
أيها الناس إن ربكم واحد وإن أباكم واحد كلكم لآدم وآدم من تراب أكرمكم عند الله اتقاكم، وليس لعربي على عجمي فضل إلا بالتقوى – ألا هل بلغت....اللهم فاشهد قالوا نعم – قال فليبلغ الشاهد الغائب.
أيها الناس إن الله قد قسم لكل وارث نصيبه من الميراث ولا يجوز لوارث وصية، ولا يجوز وصية في أكثر من ثلث، والولد للفراش وللعاهر الحجر. من ادعى إلى غير أبيه أو تولى غير مواليه فعليه لعنة الله والملائكة والناس أجمعين لا يقبل منه صرف ولا عدل. والسلام عليكم.
 

مسند فضالة بن عبيد الأنصاري رضي الله عنه
باقي مسند الأنصار
مسند أحمد

‏ ‏حدثنا ‏ ‏قتيبة بن سعيد ‏ ‏قال حدثني ‏ ‏رشدين بن سعد ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏حميد أبي هانئ الخولاني ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏عمرو بن مالك ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏فضالة بن عبيد ‏
‏أن رسول الله ‏ ‏صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ ‏قال في حجة الوداع ألا أخبركم من ‏ ‏المسلم من سلم المسلمون من لسانه ويده والمؤمن من أمنه الناس على أموالهم وأنفسهم والمهاجر من هجر الخطايا والذنوب والمجاهد من جاهد نفسه في طاعة الله عز وجل

ومن سورة التوبة
تفسير القرآن عن رسول الله
سنن الترمذي


حدثنا ‏ ‏الحسن بن علي الخلال ‏ ‏حدثنا ‏ ‏حسين بن علي الجعفي ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏زائدة ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏شبيب بن غرقدة ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏سليمان بن عمرو بن الأحوص ‏ ‏حدثنا ‏ ‏أبي ‏
‏أنه شهد حجة الوداع مع رسول الله ‏ ‏صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ ‏فحمد الله وأثنى عليه وذكر ووعظ ثم قال أي يوم ‏ ‏أحرم أي يوم ‏ ‏أحرم أي يوم ‏ ‏أحرم قال فقال الناس يوم الحج الأكبر يا رسول الله قال ‏ ‏فإن دماءكم وأموالكم وأعراضكم عليكم حرام كحرمة يومكم هذا في بلدكم هذا في شهركم هذا ألا لا ‏ ‏يجني جان إلا على نفسه ولا ‏ ‏يجني والد على ولده ولا ولد على والده ألا إن المسلم أخو المسلم فليس يحل لمسلم من أخيه شيء إلا ما أحل من نفسه ألا وإن كل ربا في الجاهلية ‏ ‏موضوع ‏ ‏لكم رءوس أموالكم لا تظلمون ولا تظلمون غير ربا ‏ ‏العباس بن عبد المطلب ‏ ‏فإنه ‏ ‏موضوع ‏ ‏كله ألا وإن كل دم كان في الجاهلية ‏ ‏موضوع ‏ ‏وأول دم وضع من دماء الجاهلية دم ‏ ‏الحارث بن عبد المطلب ‏ ‏كان مسترضعا في ‏ ‏بني ليث ‏ ‏فقتلته ‏ ‏هذيل ‏ ‏ألا واستوصوا بالنساء خيرا فإنما هن ‏ ‏عوان ‏ ‏عندكم ليس تملكون منهن شيئا غير ذلك إلا أن يأتين ‏ ‏بفاحشة ‏ ‏مبينة فإن فعلن فاهجروهن في المضاجع واضربوهن ضربا غير ‏ ‏مبرح ‏ ‏فإن أطعنكم فلا ‏ ‏تبغوا ‏ ‏عليهن سبيلا ألا إن لكم على نسائكم حقا ولنسائكم عليكم حقا فأما حقكم على نسائكم فلا يوطئن فرشكم من تكرهون ولا يأذن في بيوتكم لمن تكرهون ألا وإن حقهن عليكم أن تحسنوا إليهن في كسوتهن وطعامهن ‏
‏قال ‏ ‏أبو عيسى ‏ ‏هذا ‏ ‏حديث حسن صحيح ‏ ‏وقد رواه ‏ ‏أبو الأحوص ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏شبيب بن غرقدة


الاقتداء بالعلماء
المقدمة
سنن الدارمي

‏ ‏أخبرنا ‏ ‏سليمان بن داود الزهراني ‏ ‏أخبرنا ‏ ‏إسمعيل هو ابن جعفر ‏ ‏حدثنا ‏ ‏عمرو بن أبي عمرو ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏عبد الرحمن بن الحويرث ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏محمد بن جبير بن مطعم ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏أبيه ‏
‏أنه شهد خطبة رسول الله ‏ ‏صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ ‏في يوم ‏ ‏عرفة ‏ ‏في حجة الوداع أيها الناس إني والله لا أدري لعلي لا ألقاكم بعد يومي هذا بمكاني هذا فرحم الله من سمع مقالتي اليوم فوعاها فرب حامل فقه ولا فقه له ورب حامل فقه إلى من هو أفقه منه واعلموا ‏ ‏أن أموالكم ودماءكم حرام عليكم كحرمة هذا اليوم في هذا الشهر في هذا البلد واعلموا أن القلوب لا ‏ ‏تغل ‏ ‏على ثلاث إخلاص العمل لله ومناصحة أولي ‏ ‏الأمر وعلى لزوم جماعة المسلمين فإن دعوتهم تحيط من ورائهم .
 
 
 
The Prophet's Last Sermon
This sermon was delivered on the Ninth Day of Dhul-Hijjah 10 A.H. in the 'Uranah valley of Mount Arafat' in Mecca

After praising and thanking Allah the Prophet (saws) said:

" O People , lend me an attentive ear, for I know not whether after this year I shall ever be amongst you again. Therefore listen to what I am saying very carefully and take these words to those who could not be present here today.
O People , just as you regard this month, this day, this city as Sacred, so regard the life and property of every Muslim as a sacred trust. Return the goods entrusted to you to their rightful owners. Hurt no one so that no one may hurt you. Remember that you will indeed meet your Lord, and that he will indeed reckon your deeds. Allah has forbidden you to take usury (interest), therefore all interest obligations shall henceforth be waived. Your capital is yours to keep. You will neither inflict nor suffer any inequity. Allah has judged that there shall be no interest and that all the interest due to Abbas ibn 'Abd'al Muttalib [the Prophet's uncle] be waived.
Every right arising out of homicide in pre-islamic days is henceforth waived and the first such right that i waive is that arising from the murder of Rabiah ibn al Harithibn.
O People , the unbelievers indulge in tampering with the calender in order to make permissible that which Allah forbade, and to forbid that which Allah has made permissible. With Allah the months are twelve in number. Four of them are holy, three of these are successive and one occurs singly between the months of Jumada and Shaban.
Beware of Satan, for the safety of your religion. He has lost all hope of that he will be able to lead you astray in big things, so beware of following him in small things.
O People , it is true that you have certain rights with regard to your women but they also have rights over you. Remember that you have taken them as your wives only under Allah's trust and with His permission. If they abide by your right, then to them belongs the right to be fed and clothed in kindness. Do treat your women well and be kind to them for they are your partners and committed helpers. And it is your right that they do not make friends with anyone of whom you do not approve, as well as never to be unchaste. O People, listen to me in earnest, worship Allah, say your five daily prayers, fast during the month of Ramadhan, and give your wealth in Zakat. Perform Hajj if you can afford to.
All mankind is from Adam and Eve, an Arab has no superiority over a non-Arab nor a non-Arab has any superiority over an Arab; also a white has no superiority over a black nor a black has any superiority over a white - except by piety and good action. Learn that every Muslim is a brother to every Muslim and that the Muslims constitute one brotherhood. Nothing shall be legitimate to a Muslim which belogs to a fellow Muslim unless it was given freely and willingly. Do not therefore do injustice to yourselves. Remember one day you will meet Allah and answer your deeds. So beware: do not stray from the path of righteousness after I am gone.
O People , no prophet or apostle will come after me, and no new faith will be born. Reason well, therefore, O People, and understand my words which I convey to you. I leave behind me two things, the Qur'an and my Sunnah and if you follow these you will never go astray.
All those who listen to me shall pass on my words to others and those to others again; and may the last ones understand my words better than those who listen to me directly. Be my witness, O Allah, that I have conveyed Your message to Your people."
 
 
 
 
In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful
The Prophet's Last Sermon


This sermon was delivered on the ninth day of Dhul Hijah, 10 A.H. (632 A.D.) in the valley of Mount Arafat. The contents of the message were collected from different narrations, and there are other parts to it that are not mentioned here. This sermon still needs the authenticity of all of its parts to be checked.

"O People, lend me an attentive ear, for I know not whether, after this year, I shall ever be amongst you again. Therefore, listen to what I am saying to you very carefully and take these words to those who could not be present today.
O People, just as you regard this month, this day, this city as sacred, so regard the life and property of every Muslim as a sacred trust. Return the goods entrusted to you to their rightful owners. Hurt no one so that no one may hurt you. Remember that you will indeed meet your Lord, and that He will indeed reckon your deeds. Allah has forbidden you to take interest, therefore, all interest obligations shall henceforth be waived. Your capital, however, is yours to keep. You will neither inflict nor suffer inequity. Allah has judged that there shall be no interest and that all interest due to Abbas bin Abdul-Muttalib (the prophet's uncle) shall henceforth be waived.
Every right arising out of homicide in pre-Islamic days is henceforth waived and the first such right I waive is that arising from the murder of Rabiyah bin Al-Harith (relative of the prophet). O Men, the unbelievers indulge in tampering with the calendar in order to make permissible that which Allah forbade, and to forbid that which Allah had made permissible. With Allah the months are twelve; four of them are holy; three of these are successive and one occurs singly between the months of Jumadah and Shaaban. Beware of Satan, for the safety of your religion. He has lost all hope that he will ever be able to lead you astray in big things, so beware of following him in small things.
O People, it is true that you have certain right with regard to your women, but they also have rights over you. If they abide by your right then to them belongs the right to be fed and clothed in kindness. Do treat your women well and be kind to them for they are your partners and committed helpers. And it is your right that they do not make friends with any one of whom you do not approve, as well as never commit adultery.
O People, listen to me in earnest, worship Allah, say your five daily prayers, fast during the month of Ramadhan, and give your wealth in zakat. Perform Hajj if you can afford to. All mankind is from Adam and Eve, an Arab has no superiority over a non-Arab, nor a non-Arab has any superiority over an Arab; also a white has no superiority over a black, nor a black has any superiority over white except by piety and good action. Learn that every Muslim is the brother of another Muslim, and that Muslims constitute one brotherhood. Nothing shall be legitimate to a Muslim which belongs to a fellow Muslim unless it was given freely and willingly. Do not, therefore, do injustice to your selves.
Remember, one day you will appear before Allah and answer for your deeds. So beware, do not stray from the path of righteousness after I am gone.
O People, no prophet or apostle will come after me and no new faith will be born. Reason well, therefore, O People, and understand my words which I convey to you. I leave behind me two things, the Quran and my example, the Sunnah, and if you follow these you will never go astray.
All those who listen to me shall pass on my words to others, and those to others again; and may the last ones understand my words better that those who listen to me directly. Be my witness O Allah, that I have conveyed Your message to Your people."
Prophet Muhammad's Last Sermon

This sermon was delivered on the Ninth day of Dhul al Hijjah 10 A.H. in the 'Uranah valley of Mount Arafat.

After praising, and thanking God, he said:
"O People, listen well to my words, for I do not know whether, after this year, I shall ever be amongst you again. Therefore listen to what I am saying to you very carefully and take these words to those who could not be present today.
O People, just as you regard this month, this day, this city as Sacred, so regard the life and property of every Muslim as a sacred trust. Return the goods entrusted to you to their rightful owners. Treat others justly so that no one would be unjust to you. Remember that you will indeed meet your LORD, and that HE will indeed reckon your deeds. God has forbidden you to take usury (riba), therefore all riba obligation shall henceforth be waived. Your capital , however, is yours to keep. You will neither inflict nor suffer inequity. God has judged that there shall be no riba and that all the riba due to `Abbas ibn `Abd al Muttalib shall henceforth be waived.
Every right arising out of homicide in pre-Islamic days is henceforth waived and the first such right that I waive is that arising from the murder of Rabi`ah ibn al Harith ibn `Abd al Muttalib.
O Men, the Unbelievers indulge in tampering with the calendar in order to make permissible that which God forbade, and to forbid that which God has made permissible. With God the months are twelve in number. Four of them are sacred, three of these are successive and one occurs singly between the months of Jumada and Sha`ban. Beware of the devil, for the safety of your religion. He has lost all hope that he will ever be able to lead you astray in big things, so beware of following him in small things.
O People, it is true that you have certain rights over your women, but they also have rights over you. Remember that you have taken them as your wives only under God's trust and with His permission. If they abide by your right then to them belongs the right to be fed and clothed in kindness. Treat your women well and be kind to them, for they are your partners and committed helpers. It is your right and they do not make friends with anyone of whom you do not approve, as well as never to be unchaste...
O People, listen to me in earnest, worship God (The One Creator of the Universe), perform your five daily prayers (Salah), fast during the month of Ramadan, and give your financial obligation (zakah) of your wealth. Perform Hajj if you can afford to.
All mankind is from Adam and Eve, an Arab has no superiority over a non-Arab nor a non-Arab has any superiority over an Arab; also a white has no superiority over a black nor a black has any superiority over white except by piety and good action. Learn that every Muslim is a brother to every Muslim and that the Muslims constitute one brotherhood. Nothing shall be legitimate to a Muslim which belongs to a fellow Muslim unless it was given freely and willingly. Do not, therefore, do injustice to yourselves.
Remember, one day you will appear before God (The Creator) and you will answer for your deeds. So beware, do not stray from the path of righteousness after I am gone.
O People, no prophet or messenger will come after me and no new faith will be born. Reason well, therefore, O People, and understand words which I convey to you. I am leaving you with the Book of God (the Quraan) and my Sunnah (the life style and the behavioral mode of the Prophet), if you follow them you will never go astray.
All those who listen to me shall pass on my words to others and those to others again; and may the last ones understand my words better than those who listen to me directly. Be my witness O God, that I have conveyed your message to your people.
 


This sermon of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was delivered on the Ninth Day of Dhul Hijjah (632 CE) in the Uranah valley of Mount Arafat (in Makkah). It was the occasion of the annual rites of Hajj (pilgrimage.) It is also known as the Farewell Pilgrimage.

After praising and thanking Allah (The One True God) the Prophet (PBUH) began with the these words:

"O People, lend me an attentive ear, for I know not whether after this year I shall ever be amongst you again. Therefore listen to what I am saying to you very carefully and take these words to those who could not be present here today.

"O People! Just as you regard this month, this day, this city as Sacred, so regard the life and property of every Muslim as a sacred trust. Return the goods entrusted to you to their rightful owners. Hurt no one so that no one may hurt you. Remember that you will indeed meet your Lord, and that He will indeed reckon your deeds.

"Allah has forbidden you to take usury (interest), therefore all interest obligations shall henceforth be waived. Your capital, however, is yours to keep. You will neither inflict nor suffer any inequity. Allah has judged that there shall be no interest and that all the interest due to Abbas ibn 'Abd'al Muttalib (Prophet's uncle) shall henceforth be waived…Every right arising out of homicide in pre-Islamic days is henceforth waived, and the first such right that I waive is that arising from the murder of Rabiah ibn al-Harithiah.

"O Men! The unbelievers indulge in tampering with the calendar in order to make permissible that which Allah forbade, and to prohibit which Allah has made permissible. With Allah the months are twelve in number. Four of them are holy, three of these are successive and one occurs singly between the months of Jumada and Sha'ban.

"Beware of Satan, for the safety of your religion. He has lost all hope that he will ever be able to lead you astray in big things, so beware of following him in small things.

"O People! It is true that you have certain rights with regard to your women, but they also have rights over you. Remember that you have taken them as your wives only under Allah's trust and with His permission. If they abide by your right then to them belongs the right to be fed and clothed in kindness. Do treat your women well and be kind to them for they are your partners and committed helpers. And it's your right that they do not make friends with anyone of whom you do not approve, as well as never to be unchaste. O People! Listen to me in earnest, worship Allah, perform your five daily prayers (Salah), fast during the month of Ramadan, and give your wealth in Zakat (obligatory charity). Perform Hajj if you can afford to.

"All mankind is from Adam and Eve, an Arab has no superiority over a non-Arab nor a non-Arab has any superiority over an Arab; also a white (person) has no superiority over a black (person) nor a black has any superiority over a white except by piety and good action. Learn that Muslims are brothers to each other and that the Muslims constitute one brotherhood. Nothing shall be legitimate to a Muslim which belongs to a fellow Muslim unless it was given freely and willingly.

"Do not, therefore, do injustice to yourselves. Remember, one day you will appear before Allah and answer about your deeds. So beware, do not stray from the path of righteousness after I am gone.

"O People! No prophet or apostle will come after me and no new faith will be born. O People! Reason and understand well the words that I convey to you. I leave behind me two things, the Quran and my Sunnah (i.e. sayings, deeds and approvals), and if you follow these you will never go astray.

"All those who listen to me shall pass on my words to others and those to others again; and may the last ones understand my words better than those who listen to me directly.

"Be my witness, O Allah, that I have conveyed Your message to Your people."

As part of this sermon, the Prophet (PBUH) recited a Revelation from Allah, which he had just received: "…This day, the disbelievers have given up all hope of your religion; so fear them not, but fear Me. This day, I have perfected your religion for you and completed My favor upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion…" (Holy Quran, 5:3)

Towards the end of his sermon, the Prophet (PBUH) asked: "O people, have I faithfully delivered unto you my message?" A powerful murmur of assent "O Allah, yes!" arose from thousands of pilgrims and rolled like thunder throughout the valley.
The Prophet (PBUH) raised his forefinger and said: "Be my witness O Allah, that I have conveyed Your message to Your people."

 

The Prophet's Last Sermon
This sermon was delivered on the ninth day of Dhul Hijah, 10 A.H. (632 A.D.) in the valley of Mount Arafat. The contents of the message were collected from different narrations, and there are other parts to it that are not mentioned here. This sermon still needs the authenticity of all of its parts to be checked.
"O People, lend me an attentive ear, for I know not whether, after this year, I shall ever be amongst you again. Therefore, listen to what I am saying to you very carefully and take these words to those who could not be present today.
O People, just as you regard this month, this day, this city as sacred, so regard the life and property of every Muslim as a sacred trust. Return the goods entrusted to you to their rightful owners. Hurt no one so that no one may hurt you. Remember that you will indeed meet your Lord, and that He will indeed reckon your deeds. Allah has forbidden you to take interest, therefore, all interest obligations shall henceforth be waived. Your capital, however, is yours to keep. You will neither inflict nor suffer inequity. Allah has judged that there shall be no interest and that all interest due to Abbas bin Abdul-Muttalib (the prophet's uncle) shall henceforth be waived.
Every right arising out of homicide in pre-Islamic days is henceforth waived and the first such right I waive is that arising from the murder of Rabiyah bin Al-Harith (relative of the prophet). O Men, the unbelievers indulge in tampering with the calendar in
order to make permissible that which Allah forbade, and to forbid that which Allah had made permissible. With Allah the months are twelve; four of them are holy; three of these are successive and one occurs singly between the months of Jumadah and Shaaban. Beware of Satan, for the safety of your religion. He has lost all hope that he will ever be able to lead you astray in big things, so beware of following him in small things.
O People, it is true that you have certain right with regard to your women, but they also have rights over you. If they abide by your right then to them belongs the right to be fed and clothed in kindness. Do treat your women well and be kind to them for they are your partners and committed helpers. And it is your right that they do not make friends with any one of whom you do not approve, as well as never commit adultery.
O People, listen to me in earnest, worship Allah, say your five daily prayers, fast during the month of Ramadhan, and give your wealth in zakat. Perform Hajj if you can afford to. All mankind is from Adam and Eve, an Arab has no superiority over a non-Arab, nor a non-Arab has any superiority over an Arab; also a white has no superiority over a black, nor a black has any superiority over white except by piety and good action. Learn that every Muslim is the brother of another Muslim, and that Muslims constitute one brotherhood. Nothing shall be legitimate to a Muslim which belongs to a fellow Muslim unless it was given freely and willingly. Do not, therefore, do injustice to your selves.
Remember, one day you will appear before Allah and answer for your deeds. So beware, do not stray from the path of righteousness after I am gone.
O People, no prophet or apostle will come after me and no new faith will be born. Reason well, therefore, O People, and understand my words which I convey to you. I leave behind me two things, the Quran and my example, the Sunnah, and if you follow these you will never go astray.
All those who listen to me shall pass on my words to others, and those to others again; and may the last ones understand my words better that those who listen to me directly. Be my witness O Allah, that I have conveyed Your message to Your people."

THE MEDINA CHARTER
622 C.E.
In the name of God the Compassionate, the Merciful.
(1) This is a document from Muhammad the prophet (governing the relations) between the believers and Muslims of Quraysh and Yathrib, and those who followed them and joined them and labored with them.
(2) They are one community (umma) to the exclusion of all men.
(3) The Quraysh emigrants according to their present custom shall pay the bloodwit within their number and shall redeem their prisoners with the kindness and justice common among believers.
(4-8) The B. ‘Auf according to their present custom shall pay the bloodwit they paid in heatheism; every section shall redeem its prisoners with the kindness and justice common among believers. The B. Sa ida, the B. ‘l-Harith, and the B. Jusham, and the B. al-Najjar likewise.
(9-11) The B. ‘Amr b. ‘Auf, the B. al-Nabit and the B. al-‘Aus likewise.
(12)(a) Believers shall not leave anyone destitute among them by not paying his redemption money or bloodwit in kindness.
(12)(b) A believer shall not take as an ally the freedman of another Muslim against him.
(13) The God-fearing believers shall be against the rebellious or him who seeks to spread injustice, or sin or animosity, or corruption between believers; the hand of every man shall be against him even if he be a son of one of them.
(14) A believer shall not slay a believer for the sake of an unbeliever, nor shall he aid an unbeliever against a believer.
(15) God’s protection is one, the least of them may give protection to a stranger on their behalf. Believers are friends one to the other to the exclusion of outsiders.
(16) To the Jew who follows us belong help and equality. He shall not be wronged nor shall his enemies be aided.
(17) The peace of the believers is indivisible. No separate peace shall be made when believers are fighting in the way of God. Conditions must be fair and equitable to all.
(18) In every foray a rider must take another behind him.
(19) The believers must avenge the blood of one another shed in the way of God.
(20)(a) The God-fearing believers enjoy the best and most upright guidance.
(20)(b) No polytheist shall take the property of person of Quraysh under his protection nor shall he intervene against a believer.
(21) Whoever is convicted of killing a believer without good reason shall be subject to retaliation unless the next of kin is satisfied (with blood-money), and the believers shall be against him as one man, and they are bound to take action against him.
(22) It shall not be lawful to a believer who holds by what is in this document and believes in God and the last day to help an evil-doer or to shelter him. The curse of God and His anger on the day of resurrection will be upon him if he does, and neither repentance nor ransom will be received from him.
(23) Whenever you differ about a matter it must be referred to God and to Muhammad.
(24) The Jews shall contribute to the cost of war so long as they are fighting alongside the believers.
(25) The Jews of the B. ‘Auf are one community with the believers (the Jews have their religion and the Muslims have theirs), their freedmen and their persons except those who behave unjustly and sinfully, for they hurt but themselves and their families.
(26-35) The same applies to the Jews of the B. al-Najjar, B. al-Harith, B. Sai ida, B. Jusham, B. al-Aus, B. Tha'laba, and the Jafna, a clan of the Tha‘laba and the B. al-Shutayba. Loyalty is a protection against treachery. The freedmen of Tha ‘laba are as themselves. The close friends of the Jews are as themselves.
(36) None of them shall go out to war save the permission of Muhammad, but he shall not be prevented from taking revenge for a wound. He who slays a man without warning slays himself and his household, unless it be one who has wronged him, for God will accept that.
(37) The Jews must bear their expenses and the Muslims their expenses. Each must help the other against anyone who attacks the people of this document. They must seek mutual advice and consultation, and loyalty is a protection against treachery. A man is not liable for his ally’s misdeeds. The wronged must be helped.
(38) The Jews must pay with the believers so long as war lasts. 
(39) Yathrib shall be a sanctuary for the people of this document. 
(40) A stranger under protection shall be as his host doing no harm and committing no crime.
(41) A woman shall only be given protection with the consent of her family.
(42) If any dispute or controversy likely to cause trouble should arise it must be referred to God and to Muhammad the apostle of God. God accepts what is nearest to piety and goodness in this document.
(43) Quraysh and their helpers shall not be given protection.
(44) The contracting parties are bound to help one another against any attack on Yathrib.
(45)(a) If they are called to make peace and maintain it they must do so; and if they make a similar demand on the Muslims it must be carried out except in the case of a holy war.
(45)(b) Every one shall have his portion from the side to which he belongs.
(46) The Jews of al-Aus, their freedmen and themselves have the same standing with the people of this document in purely loyalty from the people of this document. Loyalty is a protection against treachery. He who acquires ought acquires it for himself. God approves of this document.
(47) This deed will not protect the unjust and the sinner. The man who goes forth to fight and the man who stays at home in the city is safe unless he has been unjust and sinned. God is the protector of the good and God-fearing man and Muhammad is the apostle of God.

This text is taken from A. Guillaume, The Life of Muhammad — A Translation of Ishaq's Sirat Rasul Allah, Oxford University Press, Karachi, 1955; pp. 231-233. Numbering added.

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